Private schools are the main education providers in Lagos. Pupils studying in private schools (and Bridge schools) in Lagos perform better on average in literacy and numeracy than pupils in public schools, even when factoring in background characteristics. At Primary 4 (P4) numeracy, there are more top performers in public schools than in non-Bridge private schools. The poorest students, and those who do not primarily speak English at home, are most likely to attend public schools. Poorer students have lower literacy scores in private and public schools, but not at Bridge schools. Numeracy achievement is not significantly correlated with wealth across school types. Girls perform better than boys in literacy at the P2 and at the P4 level, and across school types. Primarily speaking English at home is associated with significantly higher performance in literacy. Improving education in Lagos will need direct support to private schools, better regulation of private schools, better markets for services to private schools, and continued support to public schools. School management is an important lever for improving performance, particularly in public schools and Bridge schools.